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Nahuatl of Tetelcingo, Morelos
Listen to a greeting.
Mösiehuali̱ is the dialect of Nahuatl (also often called Mexicano, or Aztec) which is spoken in the town of Tetelcingo, Morelos, and its two colonias (independent neighborhoods), Colonia Cuauhtémoc and Colonia Lázaro Cárdenas. Tetelcingo is located six kilometers north of the city of Cuautla, Morelos.
The word Mösiehuali̱ refers either to the language or to a speaker of the language. What is common between the two meanings is that mösiehuali̱ refers to something that is part of the Indian culture rather than the surrounding Hispanic culture. It comes from the word macehualli (māsēwalli), which in Classical Nahuatl meant 'vassal, townsman'. It contrasts with castiya 'Spanish (language)', or else with qui̱xtiöno 'outsider (man)' and xejnula 'outsider (woman)'. (These three words are all borrowings from Spanish. Castiya comes from Castilla Castille or castellano Castilian, qui̱xtiöno from cristiano Christian, and xejnula from señora 'madam, lady'.)
Mösiehuali̱ is unique among the Nahuatl dialects in its vowel system, which converts the length distinction into other, more easily heard phonetic distinctions. Because of this, it has been important for those who study vowel length in Nahuatl. Mösiehuali̱ also has a notably extensive and flexible system of honorifics.
Sente sohuatl qui̱bica icuie
A woman wearing a chincuete
It is admirable how Mösiehuali̱ has survived even though Nahuatl in many other Morelos towns has died out, even towns which are much more isolated than Tetelcingo. Today Tetelcingo and its colonias have been absorbed as suburbs of Cuautla, but some of the people continue to use Mösiehuali̱ in their daily lives, and there may still be a few monolinguals. A number of the women still prefer to wear their traditional dress: the cuieyi̱tl or chincuete.
Along with the language, a number of customs were preserved in Tetelcingo which are particularly interesting from an anthropological point of view. Among them was the construction of the bescomatl, a coke-glass-shaped granary whose overhanging sides kept rats and squirrels from climbing up and getting in to eat the stored corn (maize).
SIL in Tetelcingo
Tetelcingo has a special place in the history of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. It was here, in 1935, that W. Cameron Townsend began the work of SIL, which now extends to over 1400 language projects in more than 50 countries. It was in Tetelcingo that Townsend's friendship with Mexican President Lázaro Cárdenas began. (See the Brief History by Dr. Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán.)
Richard Pittman, the founder and first editor of the Ethnologue, began his linguistic work in Tetelcingo, and wrote a number of works about Mösiehuali̱, including A Grammar of Tetelcingo (Morelos) Nahuatl, 1954.
The picture of the woman in a chincuete came from the Vocabulario mexicano de Tetelcingo (Brewer & Brewer, 1962).
The photograph of the bescomatl was taken in 1937; it is from the SIL-Mexico historical archive.
- See how to build the following long word in Mösiehuali̱: nehualmoyecastemojmoluni̱jtzinuti̱nemi̱squiöni̱.
- Spanish borrowings in Mösiehuali̱
- Mösiehuali̱ vowels
- Mösiehuali̱ consonants
- Mösiehuali̱ honorifics
- La incorporacion de sustantivos en el náhuatl (SIL-Mexico workpaper in scanned PDF format)
- Rule-governed Allomorphy can be Suppletive Also (a general linguistic article which includes an extended example from Mösiehuali̱).
On a related site:
Materials in Mösiehuali̱:
- Āmatlapohualistli de Don Lázaro Cárdenas
(An account in Mösiehuali̱ regarding President Lázaro Cárdenas)
- ¿Tli ti̱niechmojti̱li̱li̱?
(A hymn in Mösiehuali̱)